in einer Dringlichkeitssitzung am Mittwoch abend (30. März) einstimmig neue Sanktionen gegen den amtierenden Präsidenten Laurent Gbagbo beschlossen. Dieser müsse zurücktreten, weil er die Abstimmung Ende November 2010 gegen seinen Konkurrenten Alassane Ouattara verloren habe, stellte das höchste Gremium der Vereinten Nationen erneut fest. Beschlossen wurden unter anderem Reiseverbote und das Einfrieren von Auslandskonten.
»Das könnte das letzte Signal an Gbagbo sein«, sagte der französische UN-Botschafter Gérard Araud in New York nach der Beschlußfassung. Frankreich hatte gemeinsam mit Nigeria, einem engen Handelspartner insbesondere der USA, die Resolution 1975 eingebracht. Sie stärkt die Position von Ouattara, einem ehemaligen Spitzenfunktionär des Internationalen Währungsfonds, und dessen Armee FRCI. Diese aus den Rebellen im Norden sowie Aufständischen im Süden gebildete Truppe hatte Anfang der Woche eine militärische Offensive begonnen, in deren Folge es zu Massenfluchten kam. Am Donnerstag nahmen sie Medienberichten zufolge die offizielle Hauptstadt Yamoussoukro ein.
Ein Sprecher Gbagbos erklärte, man habe einen »taktischen Rückzug« vorgenommen, um weitere Opfer zu vermeiden. »Wir rufen zu einem unmittelbaren Waffenstillstand sowie zu Verhandlungen unter Moderation der Afrikanischen Union auf«, erklärte Ahoua Don Mello am Donnerstag. Falls dieses abgelehnt werde, »werden wir unser legitimes Recht zur Verteidigung nutzen«. Dagegen hatte Ouattara bereits am Dienstag seine kompromißlose Position wiederholt, wonach alle »friedlichen Mittel, Gbagbo zu einem Rücktritt zu bewegen, erschöpft sind«. Ob seine Truppen weiter auf die 200 Kilometer enfernte Hafenmetropole und Regierungssitz Abidjan vorrücken würden, war am Donnerstag unklar. Von dort wurden verstärkte Kämpfe zwischen Anhängern beider Lager gemeldet.
Die Resolution 1975 war mit Hochgeschwindigkeit durch das mächtigste UN-Gremium gebracht worden. Erst am Freitag war der Entwurf vorgelegt worden. Der chinesische UN-Botschafter Li Baodong, der ihr ebenfalls zustimmte, forderte die Konfliktparteien weiterhin eindringlich zum sofortigen Gewaltverzicht auf.
Resolution 1975 (2011)
Following is the text of Security Council resolution 1975 (2011):
“The Security Council,
“Recalling its previous resolutions, in particular resolutions 1572 (2004), 1893 (2009), 1911 (2010), 1924 (2010), 1933 (2010), 1942 (2010), 1946 (2010), 1951 (2010), 1962 (2010), 1967 (2011), 1968 (2011) and the statements of its President relating to the situation in Côte d’Ivoire, and resolution 1938 (2010) on the situation in Liberia,
“Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and unity of Côte d’Ivoire, and recalling the importance of the principles of good-neighbourliness, non-interference and regional cooperation,
“Reiterating its strong desire that the post-electoral crisis in Côte d’Ivoire be resolved peacefully and require an overall political solution that preserves democracy and peace and promotes lasting reconciliation among Ivorians,
“Commending the constructive efforts of the African Union High-level Panel for the resolution of the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire and reiterating its support to the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) for their commitment to resolve the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire,
“Welcoming the decision of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union adopted at its 265th meeting at the level of Heads of State and Government, held on 10 March 2011 in Addis Ababa, which reaffirms all its previous decisions on the rapidly deteriorating post-electoral crisis facing Côte d’Ivoire since the second round of the presidential election, on 28 November 2010, which recognize the election of Mr. Alassane Dramane Ouattara as the President of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire,
“Welcoming the political initiatives and noting the communiqué and the resolution on Côte d’Ivoire adopted by the Authority of Heads of State and Government of ECOWAS on 24 March 2011,
“Expressing grave concern about the recent escalation of violence in Côte d’Ivoire and the risk of relapse into civil war and urging all parties to show utmost restraint to prevent such outcome and to resolve their differences peacefully,
“Condemning unequivocally all provocative action and statements that constitute incitement to discrimination, hostility, hatred and violence made by any party,
“Condemning the serious abuses and violations of international law in Côte d’Ivoire, including humanitarian, human rights and refugee law, reaffirming the primary responsibility of each State to protect civilians and reiterating that parties to armed conflicts bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians and facilitate the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance and the safety of humanitarian personnel, recalling its resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009) and 1889 (2009) on women, peace and security, its resolution 1612 (2005) and 1882 (2009) on children and armed conflict and its resolution 1674 (2006) and 1894 (2009) on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts,
“Welcoming the Human Rights Council resolution A/HRC/16/25 of 25 March 2011, including the decision to dispatch an independent international commission of inquiry to investigate the facts and circumstances surrounding the allegations of serious abuses and violations of human rights committed in Côte d’Ivoire following the presidential elections of 28 November 2010,
“Stressing that those responsible for such serious abuses and violations, including by forces under their control, must be held accountable,
“Reaffirming that it is the responsibility of Côte d’Ivoire to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, to investigate alleged violations of human rights and international law and to bring to justice those responsible for such acts,
“Considering that the attacks currently taking place in Côte d’Ivoire against the civilian population could amount to crimes against humanity and that perpetrators of such crimes must be held accountable under international law and noting that the International Criminal Court may decide on its jurisdiction over the situation in Côte d’Ivoire on the basis of article 12, paragraph 3 of the Rome Statute,
“Determining that the situation in Côte d’Ivoire continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security,
“Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
“1. Urges all the Ivorian parties and other stakeholders to respect the will of the people and the election of Alassane Dramane Ouattara as President of Côte d’Ivoire, as recognized by ECOWAS, the African Union and the rest of the international community, expresses its concern at the recent escalation of violence and demands an immediate end to the violence against civilians, including women, children and internally displaced persons;
“2. Calls upon all parties to pursue the overall political solution of the African Union and, in this regard, welcomes the decision of the African Union Peace and Security Council Summit of 10 March to appoint a High Representative for the implementation of the overall political solution and calls upon all parties to fully cooperate with him;
“3. Condemns the decision of Mr. Laurent Gbagbo not to accept the overall political solution proposed by the High-Level panel put in place by the African Union, and urges him to immediately step aside;
“4. Urges all Ivorian State institutions, including the Defence and Security Forces of Côte d’Ivoire (FDSCI), to yield to the authority vested by the Ivorian people in President Alassane Dramane Ouattara, condemns the attacks, threats, acts of obstructions and violence perpetrated by FDSCI, militias and mercenaries against United Nations personnel, obstructing them from protecting civilians, monitoring and helping investigate human rights violations and abuses, stresses that those responsible for such crimes under international law must be held accountable and calls upon all parties, in particular Mr. Laurent Gbagbo’s supporters and forces, to fully cooperate with the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) and cease interfering with UNOCI’s activities in implementation of its mandate;
“5. Reiterates its firm condemnation of all violence committed against civilians, including women, children, internally displaced persons and foreign nationals, and other violations and abuses of human rights, in particular enforced disappearances, extrajudicial killings, killing and maiming of children and rapes and other forms of sexual violence;
“6. Recalls its authorization and stresses its full support given to the UNOCI, while impartially implementing its mandate, to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate to protect civilians under imminent threat of physical violence, within its capabilities and its areas of deployment, including to prevent the use of heavy weapons against the civilian population and requests the Secretary-General to keep it urgently informed of measures taken and efforts made in this regard;
“7. Calls upon all parties to cooperate fully in the operation of UNOCI and French forces which support it, in particular by guaranteeing their safety, security and freedom of movement with unhindered and immediate access throughout the territory of Côte d’Ivoire, to enable them to fully carry out their mandate;
“8. Calls upon all parties to fully cooperate with the independent international commission of inquiry put in place by the Human Rights Council on 25 March 2011 to investigate the facts and circumstances surrounding the allegations of serious abuses and violations of human rights committed in Côte d’Ivoire following the presidential elections of 28 November 2010, and requests the Secretary-General to transmit this report to the Security Council and other relevant international bodies;
“9. Condemns the use of Radiodiffusion Télévision Ivoirienne (RTI) and other media to incite discrimination, hostility, hatred and violence, including against UNOCI, as well as acts of intimidation and violence against journalists, and calls for the lifting of all restrictions placed on the exercise of the right of freedom of expression in Côte d’Ivoire;
“10. Expresses deep concern about the increasing number of internally displaced persons and Ivorian refugees, especially in Liberia, caused by the crisis in Côte d’Ivoire, and calls on all Ivorian parties to cooperate fully with United Nations agencies and other actors working to enhance access to humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced persons;
“11. Reiterates its longstanding demand that Mr. Laurent Gbagbo lift the siege of Golf Hotel without delay;
“12. Decides to adopt targeted sanctions against those individuals who meet the criteria set out in resolution 1572 (2004) and subsequent resolutions, including those individuals who obstruct peace and reconciliation in Côte d’Ivoire, obstruct the work of UNOCI and other international actors in Côte d’Ivoire and commit serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, and therefore decides that the individuals listed in Annex I of this resolution shall be subject to the financial and travel measures imposed by paragraphs 9 to 11 of resolution 1572 (2004), and reaffirms its intention to consider further measures, as appropriate, including targeted sanctions against media actors who meet the relevant sanctions criteria, including by inciting publicly hatred and violence;
“13. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.”
Source: United Nations, Security Council, Department of Public Information, 30 March 2011; www.un.org
Date of birth: 31 May 1945
Place of birth: Gagnoa, Côte d’Ivoire
Former President of Côte d’Ivoire: obstruction of the peace and reconciliation process, rejection of the results of the presidential election.
Date of birth: 20 June 1949
Place of birth: Moossou, Grand-Bassam, Côte d’Ivoire
Chairperson of the Parliamentary Group of the Ivorian Popular Front (FPI): obstruction of the peace and reconciliation process, public incitement to hatred and violence.
Passport number: PD – AE 065FH08
Date of birth: 27 January 1959
Place of birth: Issia, Côte d’Ivoire
Secretary-General in the so-called “presidency” of Mr. Gbagbo: participation in the illegitimate government of Mr. Gbagbo, obstruction of the peace and reconciliation process, rejection of the results of the presidential election, participation in violent repressions of popular movements.
Pascal Affi N’Guessan
Passport number: PD-AE 09DD00013.
Date of birth: 1 January 1953
Place of birth: Bouadriko, Côte d’Ivoire
Chairman of the Ivorian Popular Front (FPI): obstruction of the peace and reconciliation process, incitement to hatred and violence.
Date of birth: 20 October 1956
Place of birth: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
Close advisor to Mr. Gbagbo: participation in the illegitimate government of Mr. Gbagbo, obstruction of the peace and reconciliation process, public incitement to hatred and violence.