Fünf Punkte gegen den Terrorismus / Five Elements of a Strategy Against Terrorism
Kofi Annan auf dem "Internationalen Gipfeltreffen über Demokratie, Terrorismus und Sicherheit" in Madrid - Rede und Abschlusserklärung / International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security - Speech by Kofi Annan and "The Madrid Agenda"
Aus Anlass des ersten Jahrestags der Terroranschläge von Madrid (11. März 2004) veranstaltete der "Club de Madrid" vom 9. bis 11. März 2005 in Zusammenarbeit mit der spanischen Regierung eine internationale Konferenz unter der Überschrift "Demokratie für eine sichere Welt".
Kofi Annan (Kurzfassung):
Prominenter Gast war UN-Generalsekretär Kofi Annan, der eine viel beachtete Rede hielt, die wir im Folgenden dokumentieren (Kofi Annan - englisch).
Die Konferenz verabschiedete eine Abschlusserklärung, die im Anschluss daran ebenfalls dokumentiert wird (The Madrid Agenda - englisch).
UN-Generalsekretär Annan entwickelte in seiner Rede vom 10. März 2005 "fünf Punkte gegen den Terrorismus" und sprach sich darin für eine weltweite Allianz gegen den Terrorismus aus.
Annan verlangte eine einheitliche Definition dessen stark, was Terrorismus ist. Es brauche eine Definition, "die deutlich macht, dass es sich bei all jenen Handlungen um Terrorismus handelt, die die Absicht haben, den Tod oder schwere körperliche Schäden bei Zivilisten und nicht Kämpfenden herbeizuführen, mit dem Ziel, die Bevölkerung einzuschüchtern oder eine Regierung oder eine internationale Organisation dazu zu zwingen, etwas zu tun oder zu unterlassen".
Kofi Annan sagte vor den 44 versammelten amtierenden und Ex-Regierungschefs und 200 Experten aus verschiedenen internationalen Organisationen, er hoffe, eine solche Definition könne endlich den Weg zu einer übergreifenden Antiterrorkonvention frei machen.
Er kritisierte alle, die immer wieder die Debatte anheizen, indem sie auf der Rolle von Staaten im Zusammenhang mit Terrorismus beharren. "Es ist nicht nötig, darüber zu diskutieren, ob Staaten sich des Terrorismus schuldig machen können oder nicht, denn der uneingeschränkte Einsatz von Waffengewalt seitens eines Staates gegen die Zivilbevölkerung ist durch das internationale Recht klar untersagt", versuchte Annan diese Argumente, die hauptsächlich von arabischen Ländern gegen Israel und die USA gerichtet sind, zu entkräften.
Annan sprach aber auch über unangemessene Reaktion auf die terroristische Bedrohung: "Es tut mir Leid zu sagen, dass viele der Maßnahmen, die die Staaten im Kampf gegen den Terror ergreifen, die Menschenrechte und Freiheiten verletzen." Er spielte dabei unter anderem auf die USA und Großbritannien an. Annan erwägt, einen Sonderberichterstatter damit zu beauftragen, die Anti-Terror-Gesetzgebung der UN-Mitgliedsstaaten auf ihre Menschenrechtsverträglichkeit zu überprüfen.
Eine erfolgreiche Antiterrorstrategie müsse fünf Punkte erfüllen: "Unzufriedene Gruppen davon abbringen, Terror als Taktik zum Erreichen ihrer Ziele zu wählen. Terroristen den Zugang zu den Mitteln zur Durchführung ihrer Taten erschweren. Staaten dazu bringen, dass sie Terrorismus nicht unterstützen. Fähigkeiten der Staaten für die Terrorprävention ausbauen. Menschenrechte im Antiterrorkampf verteidigen."
Annan forderte konkrete Maßnahmen, wie die noch bessere Kontrolle der Finanzströme und die bessere Bewachung nuklearer Bestände. Er verlangte aber auch den Ausbau des öffentlichen Gesundheitssystems, um auf einen etwaigen Bio-Terrorismus vorbereitet zu sein.
Außerdem sei es nötig, das Bildungssystem zu verbessern. Denn "die Terrorgruppen rekrutieren ihre Mitglieder besonders leicht unter Menschen mit einer engen und verzerrten Sicht der Welt". Der UN-Generalsekretär warnte alle Staaten, die den Terrorismus unterstützen: "Der Sicherheitsrat wird nicht zögern, Disziplinarmaßnahmen zu setzen."
Nach: Der Standard, Frankfurter Rundschau, 11. März 2005
Madrid, Spain, 10 March 2005
Secretary-General's keynote address to the Closing Plenary of the International Summit on Democracy, Terrorism and Security
"A Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism"
Your Majesties, Prime Minister, Distinguished Heads of State and Government, Ladies and Gentlemen:
Why have you invited me to speak here? Because terrorism is a threat to all states, to all peoples, which can strike anytime, anywhere.
It is a direct attack on the core values the United Nations stands for: the rule of law; the protection of civilians; mutual respect between people of different faiths and cultures; and peaceful resolution of conflicts.
So of course the United Nations must be at the forefront in fighting against it, and first of all in proclaiming, loud and clear, that terrorism can never be accepted or justified, in any cause whatsoever.
By the same token, the United Nations must continue to insist that, in the fight against terrorism, we cannot compromise the core values I have listed. In particular, human rights and the rule of law must always be respected. As I see it, terrorism is in itself a direct attack on human rights and the rule of law. If we sacrifice them in our response, we will be handing victory to the terrorists.
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Since terrorism is clearly one of the major threats that we face in this century, it is only right that it received close attention in the report, “A More Secure World – Our Shared Responsibility”, produced by the High-level Panel that I set up to study global threats and recommend changes in the international system. And I am happy that some members of the Panel are here today.
The Panel asked me to promote a principled, comprehensive strategy. I intend to do that. This seems to me a fitting occasion to set out the main elements of that strategy, and the role of the United Nations in it.
first, to dissuade disaffected groups from choosing terrorism as a tactic to achieve their goals;
second, to deny terrorists the means to carry out their attacks;
third, to deter states from supporting terrorists;
fourth, to develop state capacity to prevent terrorism;
and fifth, to defend human rights in the struggle against terrorism.
The United Nations has already, for many years, been playing a crucial role in all these areas, and has achieved important successes. But we need to do more, and we must do more.
Let me start with what I call the first D: dissuading disaffected groups from choosing terrorism as a tactic.
Groups use terrorist tactics because they think those tactics are effective, and that people, or at least those in whose name they claim to act, will approve. Such beliefs are at the “root cause” of terrorism. Our job is to show unequivocally that they are wrong.
We cannot, and need not, redress all the grievances that terrorists claim to be advancing. But we must convince all those who may be tempted to support terrorism that it is neither an acceptable nor an effective way to advance their cause. It should be clearly stated, by all possible moral and political authorities, that terrorism is unacceptable under any circumstances, and in any culture.
The United Nations and its Specialised Agencies played a central role in negotiating and adopting twelve international anti-terrorism treaties. Now the time has come to complete a comprehensive convention outlawing terrorism in all its forms.
For far too long the moral authority of the United Nations in confronting terrorism has been weakened by the spectacle of protracted negotiations. But the report of the High-Level Panel offers us a way to end these arguments. We do not need to argue whether States can be guilty of terrorism, because deliberate use of armed force by States against civilians is already clearly prohibited under international law. As for the right to resist occupation, it must be understood in its true meaning. It cannot include the right to deliberately kill or maim civilians.
The Panel calls for a definition of terrorism which would make it clear that any action constitutes terrorism if it is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians and non-combatants, with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a Government or an international organization to do or abstain from any act. I believe this proposal has clear moral force, and I strongly urge world leaders to unite behind it.
Not only political leaders, but civil society and religious leaders should clearly denounce terrorist tactics as criminal and inexcusable. Civil society has already conducted magnificent campaigns against landmines, against the recruitment of children as soldiers, and against allowing war crimes to go unpunished. I should like to see an equally strong global campaign against terrorism.
Finally, we must pay more attention to the victims of terrorism, and make sure that their voices can be heard. We at the UN especially are conscious of this, having lost beloved colleagues to a terrorist attack in Baghdad two years ago. Last October the Security Council itself, in its Resolution 1566, suggested an international fund to compensate victims and their families, to be financed in part from assets seized from terrorist organizations, their members and sponsors. This suggestion should be urgently followed up.
I will now turn to the second D: denying terrorists the means to carry out their attacks. That means making it difficult for them to travel, to receive financial support, or to acquire nuclear or radiological material.
Here the United Nations has made important contributions. The UN Convention on the Suppression of Financing of Terrorism has been in force for three years. And the Security Council has long since imposed travel and financial sanctions against members of Al Qaida and associated entities. But we must do more to ensure that those sanctions are fully enforced.
We also need effective action against money-laundering. Here the United Nations could adopt and promote the eight Special Recommendations on Terrorist Financing produced by the OECD's Financial Action Task Force.
Perhaps the thing that it is most vital to deny terrorists access to nuclear materials. Nuclear terrorism is still often treated as science fiction. I wish it were. But unfortunately we live in a world of excess hazardous materials and abundant technological know-how, in which some terrorists clearly state their intention to inflict catastrophic casualties. Were such an attack to occur, it would not only cause widespread death and destruction, but would stagger the world economy and thrust tens of millions of people into dire poverty. Given what we know of the relationship between poverty and infant mortality, any nuclear terrorist attack would have a second death toll throughout the developing world.
That such an attack has not yet happened is not an excuse for complacency. Rather, it gives us a last chance to take effective preventive action.
That means consolidating, securing, and when possible eliminating potentially hazardous materials, and implementing effective export controls. Both the G8 and the UN Security Council have taken important steps to do this, and to plug gaps in the non-proliferation regime. We need to make sure these measures are fully enforced, and that they reinforce each other. I urge the Member States of the United Nations to complete and adopt, without delay, the international convention on nuclear terrorism. And I applaud the efforts of the Proliferation Security Initiative to fill a gap in our defences.
My third D is the need to deter states from supporting terrorist groups.
In the past the United Nations has not shrunk from confronting states that harbour and assist terrorists, and the Security Council has repeatedly applied sanctions. Indeed, it is largely thanks to such sanctions that several states which used to sponsor terrorists no longer do so.
This firm line must be maintained and strengthened. All states must know that, if they give any kind of support to terrorists, the Council will not hesitate to use coercive measures against them.
The fourth D is to develop state capacity to prevent terrorism.
Terrorists exploit weak states as havens where they can hide from arrest, and train their recruits. Making all states more capable and responsible must therefore be the cornerstone of our global counter-terrorism effort. This means promoting good governance and above all the rule of law, with professional police and security forces who respect human rights.
The United Nations has already done a lot in this area. The Security Council, in its resolution 1373, required every state to take important steps in preventing terrorism. The Counterterrorism Committee follows how well states are implementing that resolution.
But many poor countries genuinely cannot afford to build the capacity they need. They need help. The new Counter-Terrorism Directorate will assess their needs, and develop a comprehensive approach to technical assistance.
Every state must be able to develop and maintain an efficient criminal justice system. The UN Office on Drugs and Crime Prevention is experienced at this work and is prepared to do more.
The United Nations Development Programme focuses increasingly on questions of governance, which we all now realize are decisive for development. And our Electoral Assistance Division is increasingly called on to assist countries with elections – often at turning-points in their history, as recently they did in Afghanistan, Iraq, Burundi as well as the Palestinian territory. I hope Member States will now build on this work, as President Bush suggested to the General Assembly last September, by supporting a fund to help countries establish or strengthen democracy.
Terrorist groups find it easiest to recruit among people with a narrow or distorted view of the world. We must therefore help states to give all their citizens a modern education that encourages scientific inquiry and free thought. UNESCO has done much good work in this area, but I hope can do more.
Few threats more vividly illustrate the imperative of building state capacity than biological terrorism, which could spread deadly infectious disease across the world in a matter of days. Neither states nor international organizations have yet adapted to a new world of biotechnology, full of promise and peril. There will soon be tens of thousands of laboratories around the world capable of producing designer bugs with awesome lethal potential.
All experts agree that the best defence against this danger lies in strengthening public health. The World Health Organization's Global Outbreak and Response Network, working on a shoe-string budget, has done an impressive job in monitoring, and responding to, outbreaks of deadly infectious disease. But in the case of an overwhelming outbreak – natural or man-made – it is local health systems that will be in the front line; and in many poor countries they are inadequate or non-existent. We need a major initiative to build such systems.
The last D which is we must defend human rights.
I regret to say that international human rights experts, including those of the UN system, are unanimous in finding that many measures which States are currently adopting to counter terrorism infringe on human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Human rights law makes ample provision for counter-terrorist action, even in the most exceptional circumstances. But compromising human rights cannot serve the struggle against terrorism. On the contrary, it facilitates achievement of the terrorist's objective – by ceding to him the moral high ground, and provoking tension, hatred and mistrust of government among precisely those parts of the population where he is most likely to find recruits.
Upholding human rights is not merely compatible with successful counter-terrorism strategy. It is an essential element.
I therefore strongly endorse the recent proposal to create a special rapporteur who would report to the Commission on Human Rights on the compatibility of counter-terrorism measures with international human rights laws.
That completes my brief summary of the most important elements of a comprehensive strategy to fight terrorism.
All Departments and Agencies of the United Nations can and must contribute to carrying out this strategy. I am creating an implementation task force, under my office, which will meet regularly to review the handling of terrorism and related issues throughout the UN system, and make sure that all parts of it play their proper role.
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Tomorrow morning we shall commemorate, in deep sorrow, and in common with the whole of Europe – indeed, the whole world – the 192 innocent people who were so brutally, inexcusably murdered in the last terrorist attack here in Madrid one year ago. We shall affirm our solidarity with their families and friends; with almost two thousand other, equally innocent, people who were injured by the explosions; and with the Spanish people, who have suffered so much from terrorism over the past 30 years, but have remained true to their democratic convictions.
At the same time, we will remember the victims of 11 September 2001, and those of other terrorist attacks in Dar-es-Salaam, Nairobi, Tel Aviv, Bali, Istanbul, Riyadh, Casablanca, Baghdad, Bombay, Beslan – indeed, all victims of terrorism everywhere, no matter what their nationality, race or creed.
Some injuries can be healed with the passage of time. Others can never heal fully – and that applies especially to the mental anguish suffered by the survivors, whether wounded in body or, by the loss of their loved ones, in spirit.
To all victims around the world, our words of sympathy can bring only hollow comfort. They know that no one who is not so directly affected can truly share their grief. At least let us not exploit it. We must respect them. We must listen to them. We must do what we can to help them.
We must resolve to do everything in our power to spare others from meeting their fate.
Above all, we must not forget them.
Thank you very much.
To remember and honour the victims of the terrorist attacks of March 11, 2004, the strength and courage of the citizens of Madrid, and through them, all victims of terrorism and those who confront its threat.
We, the members of the Club of Madrid, former presidents and prime ministers of democratic countries dedicated to the promotion of democracy, have brought together political leaders, experts and citizens from across the world.
We listened to many voices. We acknowledged the widespread fear and uncertainty generated by terrorism. Our principles and policy recommendations address these fundamental concerns.
Ours is a call to action for leaders everywhere. An agenda for action for Governments, institutions, civil society, the media and individuals. A global democratic response to the global threat of terrorism.
The Madrid Principles
Terrorism is a crime against all humanity. It endangers the lives of innocent people. It creates a climate of hate and fear, it fuels global divisions along ethnic and religious lines. Terrorism constitutes one of the most serious violations of peace, international law and the values of human dignity.
Terrorism is an attack on democracy and human rights. No cause justifies the targeting of civilians and non-combatants through intimidation and deadly acts of violence.
We firmly reject any ideology that guides the actions of terrorists. We decisively condemn their methods. Our vision is based on a common set of universal values and principles. Freedom and human dignity. Protection and empowerment of citizens. Building and strengthening of democracy at all levels. Promotion of peace and justice.
A Comprehensive Response
We owe it to the victims to bring the terrorists to justice. Law enforcement agencies need the powers required, yet they must never sacrifice the principles they are dedicated to defend. Measures to counter terrorism should fully respect international standards of human rights and the rule of law.
In the fight against terrorism, forceful measures are necessary. Military action, when needed, must always be coordinated with law enforcement and judicial measures as well as political, diplomatic, economic and social responses.
We call upon every State to exercise its right and fulfill its duty to protect its citizens. Governments, individually and collectively, should prevent and combat terrorist acts. International institutions, governments and civil society should also address the underlying risk factors that provide terrorists with support and recruits.
Terrorism is now a global threat. We saw it not only in Madrid, New York and Washington, but also in Dar-es-Salaam, Nairobi, Tel Aviv, Bali, Riyadh, Casablanca, Baghdad, Bombay, and Beslan. It calls for a global response. Governments and civil society must reignite their efforts at promoting international engagement, cooperation and dialogue.
International legitimacy is a moral and practical imperative. A multilateral approach is indispensable. International institutions, especially the United Nations, must be strengthened. We must renew our efforts to make these institutions more transparent, democratic and effective in combating the threat.
Narrow national mindsets are counterproductive. Legal institutions, law enforcement and intelligence agencies must cooperate and exchange pertinent information across national boundaries.
Citizens and Democracy
Only freedom and democracy can ultimately defeat terrorism. No other system of government can claim more legitimacy, and through no other system can political grievances be addressed more effectively.
Citizens promote and defend democracy. We must support the growth of democratic movements in every nation, and reaffirm our commitment to solidarity, inclusiveness and respect for cultural diversity.
Citizens are actors, not spectators. They embody the principles and values of democracy. A vibrant civil society plays a strategic role in protecting local communities, countering extremist ideologies and dealing with political violence.
A Call to Action
An aggression on any nation is an aggression on all nations. An injury to one human being is an injury to all humanity. Indifference cannot be countenanced. We call on each and everyone. On all States, all organizations – national and international. On all citizens.
Drawing on the deliberations of political leaders, experts and citizens, we have identified the following recommendations for action, which we believe should be extended, reviewed, and implemented as part of an ongoing, dynamic process.
The Madrid Recommendations
Political and philosophical differences about the nature of terrorism must not be used as an excuse for inaction. We support the Global Strategy for Fighting Terrorism announced by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the Madrid Summit on March 10. We urgently call for:
the adoption of the definition proposed by the United Nations High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change in December 2004.
- the ratification and implementation of all terrorism-related conventions by those states which have not yet done so.
the speedy conclusion of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism.
And we believe it is a moral and practical necessity to address the needs of terrorist victims. We therefore recommend:
the exploration of the possibility of creating high commissioners for victims both at the international and the national level, who will represent the victims’ right to know the truth, as well as obtain justice, adequate redress and integral reparation.
The basis for effective co-operation across national borders is trust and respect for the rule of law. Trust is built through shared norms, reciprocity and the practical experience of effective collaboration. To encourage this sense of mutual confidence, we propose:
the establishment of regular, informal forums for law enforcement and intelligence officials, which may grow from bilateral consultations into a formalised structure for multilateral co-operation.
the strengthening of regional organisations, so that measures to combat terrorism are tailored to local needs and benefit from local knowledge and networks.
the effective co-ordination of these mechanisms at the global level.
International collaboration in the fight against terrorism is also a question of human and financial capital. We call for:
Underlying Risk Factors
the establishment of an international mechanism – including states, non-governmental organisations and the private sector – to help link states that are in need of resources with those that can provide assistance.
the creation of a trust fund for the purpose of assisting governments that lack the financial resources to implement their obligations, as proposed by the United Nations High-Level Panel.
Terrorism thrives on intimidation, fear and hatred. While authorities have a responsibility to ensure freedom, including religious freedom, leaders, including religious leaders, in turn have a responsibility not to abuse that freedom by encouraging or justifying hatred, fanaticism or religious war. We propose:
the systematic promotion of cultural and religious dialogue through local encounters, round tables and international exchange programmes.
that authorities and the mass media continuously review their use of language to ensure it does not unwittingly or disproportionately reinforce the terrorist objective of intimidation, fear and hatred.
the creation of programmes, national and international, to monitor the expression of racism, ethnic confrontation and religious extremism, their impact in the media, as well as to review school textbooks for their stance on cultural and religious tolerance.
While poverty is not a direct cause of terrorism, economic and social policy can help mitigate exclusion and the impact of rapid socioeconomic change, which give rise to grievances that are often exploited by terrorists. We recommend:
the adoption of long-term trade, aid and investment policies that help empower marginalised groups and promote participation.
new efforts to reduce structural inequalities within societies by eliminating group discrimination.
the launch of programmes aimed at promoting women’s education, employment and empowerment.
the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
Terrorists prosper in societies where there are unresolved conflicts and few accountable mechanisms for addressing political grievances. We call for:
new initiatives at mediation and peace-making for societies which are marked by conflict and division, because democracy and peace go hand in hand.
a redoubling of efforts to promote and strengthen democratic institutions and transparency within countries and at the global level. Initiatives such as the Community of Democracies may contribute to these goals.
Democratic principles and values are essential tools in the fight against terrorism. Any successful strategy for dealing with terrorism requires terrorists to be isolated. Consequently, the preference must be to treat terrorism as criminal acts to be handled through existing systems of law enforcement and with full respect for human rights and the rule of law. We recommend:
taking effective measures to make impunity impossible either for acts of terrorism or for the abuse of human rights in counter-terrorism measures.
the incorporation of human rights laws in all anti-terrorism programmes and policies of national governments as well as international bodies.
The implementation of the proposal to create a special rapporteur who would report to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights on the compatibility of counter-terrorism measures with human rights law, as endorsed by the United Nations Secretary General in Madrid.
the inclusion and integration of minority and diaspora communities in all our societies.
the building of democratic political institutions across the world embodying these same principles.
In the fight against terrorism, any information about attacks on another state must be treated like information relating to attacks on one’s own state. In order to facilitate the sharing of intelligence across borders, we propose:
the overhaul of classification rules that hinder the rapid exchange of information.
the clarification of conditions under which information will be shared with other states on the basis of availability.
the use of state of the art technology to create regional and global anti-terrorism data bases.
The principle of international solidarity and co-operation must also apply to defensive measures. We recommend:
the creation of cross-border preparedness programmes in which governments and private business participate in building shared stockpiles of pharmaceuticals and vaccines, as well as the seamless co-operation of emergency services.
Solidarity must be enhanced by new efforts at co-ordinating the existing instruments of anti-terrorist collaboration. We propose:
the streamlining and harmonisation of national and international tools in the fight against terrorism.
the creation of clear guidelines on the role of the armed forces in relation to other agencies of law enforcement at the national level.
the drawing up of national plans to co-ordinate responsibilities in the fight against terrorism, allowing for agencies or organisations with special skills to contribute to a comprehensive effort.
The threat from terrorism has made efforts to limit the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction even more urgent. We call for:
the United Nations Security Council to initiate on-site investigations where it is believed that a state is supporting terrorist networks, and if necessary to use the full range of measures under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter.
the conclusion of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, and the strengthening and implementation of the biological weapons convention.
the continuation of innovative global efforts to reduce the threat from weapons of mass destruction, such as the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Global Partnerships.
Terrorists must be deprived of the financial resources necessary to conduct their campaigns. To curb terrorist funding networks, we recommend:
increased and co-ordinated law enforcement and political and civic education campaigns aimed at reducing the trafficking of illegal narcotics, revenues from which are used to finance terrorism.
the creation of an international anti-terrorist finance centre, which furthers research, trains national enforcement officials, and serves as a source of co-ordination and mutual assistance.
the development of tools to increase the transparency of fundraising in the private and charitable sectors through the exchange of best practices.
the expansion of ‘financial intelligence units’, which facilitate the effective corporation between government agencies and financial institutions.
The process of building democracy as an antidote to terrorism and violence needs to be supported by the international community and its citizens. We propose:
Taking The Madrid Agenda Forward
The creation of a global citizens network, linking the leaders of civil society at the forefront of the fight for democracy from across the world, taking full advantage of web-based technologies and other innovative forms of communication.
An ‘early warning system’ as part of this network, helping to defuse local conflicts before they escalate, as well as providing a channel for moral and material support to civil society groups facing repression.
The Club de Madrid will present the Madrid Agenda to the United Nations, the forthcoming Community of Democracies ministerial meeting in Chile, as well as other institutions and governments. The Club de Madrid will engage with universities, specialised research institutes and think-tanks to elaborate the proposals made by the Summit’s working groups and panels.
The space for dialogue and exchange of ideas opened by this Summit, drawing on the work of the numerous experts, practitioners and policymakers involved, must continue. The papers prepared provide a powerful tool for all those who wish to understand the challenge from terrorism and seek effective solutions.
Keeping in our hearts the memory of the victims of terrorism in different continents, and the terrible attacks in the United States in 2001, we believe it would have both symbolic and practical value to hold a further global conference on September 11, 2006, to take stock of the progress made in realising the Madrid Agenda.
Club of Madrid
Madrid, March 11, 2005
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