Die Palästinenser wollen als Staat anerkannt werden - und bereiten einen neuen Vorstoß bei den Vereinten Nationen vor. Washington ist dagegen, Israel will auch die Europäer auf Widerstand einschwören.
Zwei Tage nach der US-Präsidentenwahl haben die Palästinenser einen Antrag auf Aufwertung ihres Status bei den Vereinten Nationen verbreitet. Das der Deutschen Presse-Agentur vorliegende Schreiben wurde allerdings nur zur Information an die 193 UNO-Mitgliedsstaaten geschickt. Offiziell eingebracht ist der Antrag noch nicht. Dennoch berief Israels Außenminister Avigdor Lieberman umgehend ein Krisentreffen der Botschafter seines Landes in europäischen Ländern in Wien ein.
Dabei wolle er die Einzelheiten einer Kampagne besprechen, mit der die europäischen Regierungen gegen die palästinensische Initiative in Stellung gebracht werden sollten, schrieb die Zeitung »Jerusalem Post« am Freitag.
Lieberman verurteilte den beabsichtigten UNO-Antrag der Palästinenser scharf. »Diese einseitige Maßnahme stellt einen Bruch aller Regeln dar und hat eine rote Linie überschritten«, zitierte die Zeitung den Politiker.
Der rechtsgerichtete Minister hatte in der Vergangenheit schon die Ablösung von Palästinenserpräsident Mahmud Abbas gefordert. Jerusalem und auch Washington lehnen die Anerkennung eines Palästinenserstaates durch die Vereinten Nationen vor einem Friedensschluss mit Israel ab.
In dem Resolutionsentwurf bittet Palästinenserpräsident Mahmud Abbas die UNO-Vollversammlung, den Palästinensern den Status eines »Beobachterstaates« einzuräumen. Damit wären die Palästinenser zwar nicht Vollmitglied und hätten kaum mehr Rechte als jetzt. Zum ersten Mal würden sie allerdings offiziell als Staat geführt.
Abbas hatte diesen Schritt bei der UNO-Vollversammlung Ende September angekündigt, den Termin allerdings noch offen gelassen. Unter der Hand galt als gewiss, dass die Palästinenser die Entscheidung erst nach der US-Präsidentenwahl suchen würden, um den ihnen gewogenen Präsidenten Barack Obama nicht unter Zugzwang zu setzen. Im vergangenen Jahr war Abbas mit dem Versuch einer Vollmitgliedschaft bei der UNO gescheitert. Obama war allerdings schon während der ersten vier Amtsjahre nicht bei einer Lösung des Nahostkonflikts vorangekommen. Israel baut weiter seine Siedlungen im Westjordanland und in Ost-Jerusalem aus.
Unklar war am Freitag noch, wann die Palästinenser die Abstimmung offiziell beantragen. In Ramallah wurde über einen Termin noch im November spekuliert. Die Palästinenser hätten dann einen ähnlichen Status wie der Vatikan. Auch die beiden deutschen Staaten lebten mit diesem Provisorium, bevor sie 1973 ordentliche UN-Mitglieder wurden.
Dokumentiert: Ein Papier der PLO zur neuerlichen Initiative bei den vereinten Nationen
Palestine Liberation Organization:
Palestine initiative to seek an enhanced status as an Observer State at the United Nations
Frequently Asked Questions **
The Palestinian people, like all peoples of the world, have the right to live free in their own
country and to enjoy a life of dignity, security, and prosperity. This right to self-determination is
an inalienable right that is not up for negotiation.
For almost seven decades now, the Palestinian people have been denied their natural and
historical right to independence and freedom. The independence of a sovereign and viable
Palestinian State is a debt owed by the international community to the Palestinian people that is
long-overdue. This right has awaited implementation for nearly seven decades. Now, it is
Palestinians will go to the UN General Assembly, to ask for international recognition of the State
of Palestine on the pre-1967 borders, including East Jerusalem, and an enhancement of their
status at the Assembly to that of Observer State. This is an interim step, in light of the situation
of impasse faced by the Palestinian application in the Security Council, for full membership at
the United Nations, which was lodged on 23 September 2011.
International recognition of the State of Palestine and its admission to the UN are consistent with
numerous UN resolutions and international law, and support the formula which the world agrees
is the only way to peace. That formula is two States, Palestine and Israel, living side by side in
security, freedom, and peace on the basis of the pre-1967 border.
Why are Palestinians asking for recognition and enhanced status at the UN?
This is a natural, historical, and legal right for the Palestinian people. Statehood and its
declaration is a sovereign right of all nations, as stipulated in international law. The world has
repeatedly affirmed that the Palestinian people have an inalienable right to self-determination
and have a right to a “sovereign and independent” State. Moreover, the International Court of
Justice (ICJ), in its 2004 Advisory Opinion, made it clear that impeding the Palestinian people’s
exercise of its right to self-determination is illegal.
What do Palestinians want out of the UN?
Palestinians want to be an equal member of the community of nations, with equal rights and
obligations under international law. We want to build on the historic 1988 declaration of
independence and subsequent international recognition accorded to Palestine. We want to
formalize this international recognition at the United Nations, the highest international body.
Enhancement of Palestine’s status to Observer State is an interim step on the way to Member
State Status. This will further advance Palestinian aspirations for statehood and freedom, which,
once achieved, will lead to peace in the region. It will safeguard the internationally-endorsed
two-State solution and provide a framework for negotiations with clear parameters, so that all
final status issues can be resolved through direct negotiations with Israel.
Why should the world support Palestine’s bid?
Recognition of the State of Palestine on the pre-1967 border is a sovereign decision of each
State. 132 countries, including 9 of the 10 most populous countries in the world, already
recognize Palestine. Combined, these countries represent over 75% of the world’s population.
Support for the enhancement of Palestine’s status at the UN will reaffirm that Israel has no valid
claim to any parts of the territory it occupied in 1967, including East Jerusalem, and that Israel’s
colonization of Palestinian land is illegal.
For over 65 years, the international community has promised Palestine its independence, as
enshrined in the General Assembly Resolution 181. This right is now long overdue. The
international community therefore has a moral obligation to support the Palestinians in their
endeavors to achieve their freedom and independence.
The international community has a legal obligation towards Palestine. [The legal obligation is in
accordance with 181 and all other relevant resolutions.] According to the International Court of
Justice Advisory Opinion on the Wall (2004), supporting the Palestinian people’s right to selfdetermination
and statehood is considered an international responsibility. In addition, the UN has
repeatedly recognized that Palestinians are entitled to the human rights outlined by relevant
Covenants and Declarations. This includes the opportunity to “freely determine their political
status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development", as provided by
Common Article 1 of the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic
and Social Rights.
Finally Palestine’s bid for enhanced status is a non-violent and diplomatic action that supports
the enforcement of international law and one that reaffirms the international community’s
commitment to the two-State solution. It is an investment in peace.
Do Palestinians plan to declare a state?
Palestinians have already declared independence. On 15 November 1988, the Palestine
Liberation Organization’s National Council, the highest representative body of the organization,
declared Palestinian independence. This declaration was historic because it signalled the PLO’s
endorsement of the two-State solution formula for the conflict based on the 1967 border,
including relevant UN resolutions. Subsequently, the UN acknowledged the 1988 declaration
and approximately 100 countries recognized Palestine. Today, 132 countries recognize Palestine.
Does Palestine fulfil the prerequisites to Statehood?
The State of Palestine has met all prerequisites to statehood listed in the 1933 Montevideo
Convention on the rights and duties of States:
Is Palestine economically and institutionally ready for statehood?
The permanent population of our land is the Palestinian people.
Our right to self-determination has been repeatedly recognized by the UN and by the
International Court of Justice in 2004.
Our territory is recognized as the lands framed by the 1967 border, though it is militarily
occupied by Israel.
Palestine has the capacity to enter into relations with other States and already has embassies and
missions in more than 100 countries.
The State of Palestine also fulfils the UN membership requirements of being a peace-loving
nation and committing to the principles of the United Nations Charter as well as being able and
willing to carry out these obligations, as affirmed in the Declaration appended to Palestine’s
application for admission to the United Nations membership.
This question is a red herring. Economic stability and institutional “readiness” are not
requirements for statehood or UN membership. The question of Palestine’s “readiness” is a
diversionary tactic used by those who oppose Palestine’s request for enhanced status.
Although economic readiness is not a consideration for UN membership, it should be pointed out
that the single biggest obstacle to the development and viability of the Palestinian economy is the
Israeli occupation, which cost the Palestinian economy a staggering 84.9% of its GDP in 2010. This is a point of international consensus that has been repeatedly reaffirmed by the UN and
other international organizations, including the IMF and World Bank.
Nevertheless, despite the severe economic effects of the occupation, the Palestinian government
has successfully completed a two-year State-building plan, which was endorsed and supported
by the international community, building the strong foundations for the Palestinian State.
Will this step end the Israeli occupation?
While enhanced status at the UN and recognition will not physically remove the Israeli
occupying forces from the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Palestinians believe this effort
represents a crucial step that will contribute to the end of occupation and the realization of
Palestinian rights. It will realign the political process and discourse with international law and
lay to rest any questions on the issue of Palestinian statehood.
Is this merely a symbolic step?
No. International recognition and enhancement of status in the UN bring Palestinians closer to
freedom by strengthening the basis of the two-State solution, which is the internationally agreedon
formula for peace in the region. This, in turn, strengthens the possibility of reaching a just and
lasting peace based on the internationally-endorsed terms of reference for resolving the conflict
that are rooted in international law.
By recognizing Palestine, the international community would be formalizing these terms of
reference and protecting the two-State solution as well as reaffirming the universality of human
Enhanced status in the UN will also enable Palestine to better use the UN and other international
forums to advance its just cause for freedom and independence. As an occupied people,
Palestinians have long been at a certain disadvantage at the United Nations. They are currently
unable to sign treaties or enter international bodies and agreements. By achieving Observer State
status, these avenues would finally be opened up to Palestine and its just cause for freedom.
Is this a unilateral step?
On the contrary, going to the United Nations, which represents the voice of the world, is the
ultimate expression of multilateralism. Palestine is asking the world to act collectively in the
interest of peace.
Meanwhile, statehood is a sovereign right which has never been negotiated bilaterally. Palestine
declared independence in 1988. The notion that Israel should approve the Palestinians’
inalienable right to self-determination is illogical and unacceptable. The request for enhanced
status concerns recognition of the State of Palestine by the international community, not the
granting of statehood to Palestine.
In fact, it is Israel that continues to carry out numerous illegal and unilateral actions, including
the continued expansion of Israeli settlements and construction of the Wall. In fact, since the
Oslo Accords, the Israeli settler population in the Occupied Palestinian Territory has doubled;
from nearly 250,000 in 1993 to over 510,000 today. Furthermore, Israel’s attempted annexation
of occupied East Jerusalem and closure of the Jordan Valley and Dead Sea are also unilateral
measures which the international community totally rejects and considers illegal impediments to
peace. Today, Israel’s unilateral actions of settlement expansion and Wall construction take up
almost 50% of the occupied West Bank.
Does recognition of Palestine delegitimize Israel?
No; especially since Palestine recognized Israel in 1993. Additionally, many countries which
have already recognized the State of Palestine, including large countries such as the Russian
Federation and the People’s Republic of China, maintain solid relations with Israel.
Claims that recognition of Palestine can only occur following final resolution of the conflict,
which is long overdue, ignore the fact that Israel has been recognized by many States and
admitted as a Member State of the United Nations for over six decades, despite the ongoing
conflict and despite its existence for over forty-five years as a military occupying Power and
violator of international law.
The Palestinian initiative for enhanced status at the UN is first and foremost an important step
towards legitimizing the State of Palestine as a free, independent and sovereign state. The
eventual result of this step will be peace in the region. In this regard, Palestinians seek to
reinforce the international position that does not recognize Israel’s occupation and practices of
colonization and annexation as legitimate.
Does this step violate or contradict previously signed agreements?
No. Recognizing the State of Palestine is consistent with the basis of the 1993 Declaration of
Principles, including the principle of the two-State solution and relevant UN resolutions, such as
242,338, and 1515 among many others. These terms of reference have been consistently
undermined by Israel’s unilateral actions, primarily the continued illegal construction and
expansion of Israeli settlements and Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East
Jerusalem. Recognizing Palestine is consistent with the spirit and letter of signed agreements and
relevant UN resolutions and shall work to reinforce the two-State solution and protect it from
unilateral Israeli actions.
** Quelle: PLO, Ocober 2012; www.nad-plo.org