Neue UNO-Mission in Libyen (UNSMIL) / Rebellen als Übergangsregierung anerkannt

UN-Sicherheitsrat verabschiedet Resolution 2009 (2011): Verlängerung der "Flugverbotszone" - aber "keine Waffengewalt" / NATO will weiter bomben


Diese Seite enthält ein paar aktuelle Informationen über die weitere behandlung der Libyen-Frage durch den UN-Sicherheitsrat. Wir dokumentieren - jeweils mit kurzen Erläuterungen - folgende UN-Meldungen:
Der Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen hat sich mit einer Resolution einstimmig für die Einrichtung einer neuen UN-Mission in Libyen (UNSMIL) ausgesprochen. Die in New York verabschiedete Resolution beinhaltet umfassende Maßnahmen für den wirtschaftlichen Wideraufbau des Landes. So soll die neue UNO-Mission dem Übergangsrat bei der Organisation von Wahlen und der Ausarbeitung einer neuen Verfassung zur Seite stehen. Ferner sieht die Resolution die Lockerung der Sanktionen gegen Libyen vor. Wichtig ist auch der Hinweis auf die "verbesserte Sicherheitslage", die es aber dennoch erforderlich mache, die bestehende Flugverbotszone aufrechtzuerhalten und erst zu beenden, "wenn die Umstände es erlaubten". Interessant ist aber auch, dass die in der Resolution vorgeschlagenen Maßnahmen nach Art. 41 der UN-Charta ergriffen werden sollen ("Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, and taking measures under its Article 41"). D.h. der Einsatz von Waffengewalt ist demnach ausgeschlossen. Der Artikel 41 lautet nämlich:

"Der Sicherheitsrat kann beschließen, welche Maßnahmen - unter Ausschluß von Waffengewalt - zu ergreifen sind, um seinen Beschlüssen Wirksamkeit zu verleihen; er kann die Mitglieder der Vereinten Nationen auffordern, diese Maßnahmen durchzuführen. Sie können die vollständige oder teilweise Unterbrechung der Wirtschaftsbeziehungen, des Eisenbahn-, See- und Luftverkehrs, der Post-, Telegraphen- und Funkverbindungen sowie sonstiger Verkehrsmöglichkeiten und den Abbruch der diplomatischen Beziehungen einschließen."

Wenn die NATO am 21. September also beschließt, ihre militärischen Aktionen in Libyen fortzusetzen (siehe weiter unten), ist das mit der neuen UN-Resolution nicht vereinbar.

Die UN-Resolution trägt die Nummer 2009 (2011) und wurde verabschiedet am 16. September 2011. Sie ist hier in einer deutschen Übersetzung herunterzuladen (pdf-Datei). Das UN News Centre berichtete darüber:

Security Council authorizes UN support mission for Libya

16 September 2011 – The Security Council today agreed to deploy a mission to Libya to support the North African country’s transitional authorities in their reconstruction efforts after the end of the conflict, including restoring the rule of law, drafting a new constitution, promoting reconciliation and preparing for elections.

In a resolution adopted unanimously, Council members said the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) will be led by a Special Representative of the Secretary-General for an initial period of three months.

They also lifted some of the arms embargo, assets freeze and no-fly zone that had been imposed by the Council earlier this year after forces supporting the regime of Colonel Muammar al-Qadhafi began a brutal crackdown against many of its citizens.

Today’s resolution tasks the new mission with restoring public security and the rule of law, promoting inclusive political dialogue and national reconciliation, and helping the National Transitional Council (NTC) embark on the constitution-making process and lay the foundation for an electoral process.

UNSMIL will also help extend State authority, including through strengthening emerging accountable institutions, restoring public services, promoting and protecting human rights, particularly for vulnerable groups, and supporting transitional justice.

The mission will take immediate steps to initiate economic recovery and coordinate support that may be requested from other multilateral and bilateral actors as appropriate.

In the resolution, the Council made several modifications to the assets freeze, no-fly zone and arms embargo that had been imposed.

The 15-member body exempted the Libyan National Oil Corporation and country’s Zueitina Oil Company from the asset freeze, and similarly eased measures against the Central Bank of Libya, the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank (LAFB), the Libyan Investment Authority (LIA), and the Libyan Africa Investment Portfolio (LAIP).

Sanctions were also eased by the Council on funds, other financial assets or economic resources of the Central Bank of Libya, LAFB, LIA and the LAIP.

The Council urged States to give due consideration to the use of international financial mechanisms to promote transparency and prevent misappropriation in Libya.

It requested the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to work with the Libyan authorities to assess the country’s public financial management framework, and recommend steps to be taken by the Libyan authorities to ensure transparency and accountability with respect to the fund held by governmental institutions.

The Council took note of the improved security situation in Libya and said it would keep the prevailing no-fly zone restrictions under continuous review, stressing its readiness to terminate those measures when circumstances permit.

(UN News Centre, 16 September 2011; www.un.org)


Security Council Creates United Nations Support Mission in Libya, Adopting Resolution 2009 (2011)

South Africa , Russian Federation Call for Early Lifting of No-Fly Zone

Affirming a leadership role for the United Nations in international efforts to support a nationally led process aimed at building a democratic, independent and united Libya, the Security Council decided this afternoon to establish a support mission in that country.

By unanimously adopting resolution 2009 (2011), the Council also decided that the mandate of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) would be authorized for an initial period of three months. It should assist Libyan national efforts to restore public security, promote the rule of law, foster inclusive political dialogue and national reconciliation, and embark on constitution-making and electoral processes.

The mandate would cover assisting national efforts to extend State authority, strengthen institutions, restore public services, support transitional justice and protect human rights, particularly those of vulnerable groups. It would also include taking the immediate steps required to initiate economic recovery and coordinate support that may be requested from other multilateral and bilateral actors, as appropriate.

In support of those objectives, the Council also partly lifted, through the resolution, the arms embargo imposed on Libya and the asset freeze targeting entities connected to the previous regime, under resolution 1970 (2011). It emphasized its intention to keep the no-fly zone imposed by resolution 1973 (2011) under review.

Following the adoption, Council members congratulated Libya’s representative on taking his seat as a representative of the National Transitional Council. Most speakers stressed the importance of Libyan ownership of all transitional and reconstruction efforts.

South Africa’s representative, however, expressed disappointment that the resolution did not call specifically for the protection of the human rights of African migrants. Alongside the Russian Federation’s representative and other speakers, he also called for the early lifting of the no-fly zone.

Libya’s representative said today was a historic day for the Libyan people, an indication that dictatorship and terror had ended and that the blood of 30,000 martyrs had not been shed in vain. He paid tribute to all those who had supported the protection of civilians in Libya, thereby saving the lives of thousands, by supporting resolutions 1970 (2011) and 1973 (2011).

Thanking each and every Council member for the establishment of UNSMIL, he said he looked forward to the establishment of a mission based on national ownership of all efforts. It was to be hoped that everyone would respect the choices made by the Libyan people, he said, pledging that the transitional Government would respect previous commitments, act in accordance with mutual respect and interests, and seek justice rather than vengeance in transitional matters.

Also speaking today were representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Germany, United States, China, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia and Lebanon.

Quelle: Website des UN-Sicherheitsrats, Department of Public Information, 16 September 2011; (SC/10389); www.un.org

Sobald die Resolution 2009 (2011) als pdf-Datei vorliegt, werden wir sie auf unserer Wesite dokumentieren.


Ein Gipfeltreffen sagt der libyschen Übergangsregierung Unterstützung zu

Am 20. September 2011 kamen auf Einladung des UN-Generalsekretärs Ban Ki-moon über 50 Staats- und Regierungschefs in New York zusammen, um ihre Hilfe für die Übergangsregierung in Libyen zu koordinieren. Zuvor waren die von der NATO an die Macht gebombten Rebellen des "Nationalen Übergangsrats" zur Interims-Regierung erklärt worden. Das alles geschah im Namen der Vereinten Nationen, obwohl die Situation inm Libyen alles andere als geklärt ist. Insbesondere kann von einer überall akzeptierten neuen Regierungsgewalt nicht die Rede sein. Mustafa Abdel Jalil, Präsident des Nationalen Übergangsrats (NTC), sprach in der Sitzung auch davon, dass die letzten Nester des Gaddafi-Regimes erst noch eliminiert werden müssten. (Zu diesem Zweck beschloss der NATO-Rat am 21. September, seine militärische Unterstützung für das neue Regime um drei Monate zu verlängern. Es wird also weiter gebombt.) Im Folgenden der Bericht über das Treffen der 50 Staaten in New York:

World’s countries pledge support for Libyan transition at UN summit

20 September 2011 – A United Nations summit in support of Libya today backed the transition plans of the country’s new authorities and pledged their ongoing support to help the North African country establish the rule of law, uphold key human rights and promote both economic recovery and public security.

More than 50 heads of State or government took part in the meeting, hosted by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon at UN Headquarters in New York and organized as the months of conflict between pro-democracy groups and forces supporting the ousted regime of Colonel Muammar al-Qadhafi come to an end.

Those attending include United States President Barack Obama, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Foreign Secretary William Hague, whose countries led the UN-backed air campaign to protect civilians from attack by Mr. Qadhafi’s forces.

Officials from the National Transitional Council (NTC) of Libya, which have become the interim authorities, outlined some of their plans to the meeting – held just days after the Security Council authorized the creation of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) for an initial three-month period.

Mustafa Abdel Jalil, President of the NTC, told the gathering that the key short-term challenges include eliminating the last pockets of pro-Qadhafi resistance, meeting the demand for reconstruction, and compensating families who lost loved ones during the months of conflict.

In a statement issued after today’s meeting, participants commended the Libyan people for having “fought heroically for the respect of fundamental human rights, rule of law, dignity and freedom of expression.”

They also voiced support for the NTC’s plans for the transition period and promised to mobilize international support in such areas as elections, constitution-making, human rights, security, gender issues and economic recovery.

The participants urged the NTC to move swiftly to form an inclusive government “that reflects the full diversity of Libyan society and aims to build a new, united, democratic and pluralistic Libya in which human rights, fundamental freedoms and justice will be guaranteed.”

The authorities must “fully abide by their commitment to respect international humanitarian and human rights law in the transitional process,” including protecting the rights of all minorities, including migrant workers from sub-Saharan Africa.

They also noted that the UN and the Security Council should guide the international community’s efforts in supporting the transition, emphasizing that the transition must be a Libyan-led process.

A “Friends of Libya” group – to be co-chaired by the interim Libyan authorities and either Mr. Ban or Ian Martin, the head of UNSMIL – will meet periodically in Tripoli, the capital, to support stabilization and reconstruction efforts.

In his address to the meeting, Mr. Ban welcomed the installation of a new flag for Libya, which now flies outside UN Headquarters along with the standards of all other UN Member States.

“We offer congratulations and best wishes for the future,” the Secretary-General told the representatives of the NTC. “For the past seven months, you have fought courageously for your fundamental rights and freedoms.

“Women and young people were in the vanguard, demanding a say in the political and socio-economic life of their country. As you look to the future, I want you to know that the United Nations will support you in every way we can.”

He noted that the challenges for Libya remain huge, and said the first priority has to be establishing peace and security across the country.

“We are encouraged that so many Libyans, from so many communities, have laid down their arms and are working together to build their nation. We urge those that have not done so to join them.”

In a separate meeting with Mr. Jalil, Mr. Ban described the extent of participation by Member States in today’s meeting “as a testament of the interest of the international community in the success of Libyan efforts to build a democratic and prosperous nation.”

(UN News Centre, 20 September 2011; www.un.org)


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